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What Do We Know About Kona Coffee Beans?
This article is about the review of the coffee bean and the chain of requirements for roasting.
A coffee bean is a seed of the plant and the source for Ol'Town Kona Beans. It is the pit inside the red fruit often referred to as a cherry. Even though coffee beans are seeds, they are referred to as "beans" because of their resemblance to actual beans. The cherry or berries as standard contain two sprouts with their flat sides together. A small percentage of cherries contain a single sprout, instead of the standard two. This is called a "Peaberry bean". The Hualalai Estate Peaberry bean occurs only 10 to 15% of the time, and they are fairly reliable. Many reviews exist which suggest they have more flavor than other Kona beans.
The two most economically important varieties of this plant are the Arabica and the Robusta with 60% of the plants produced worldwide are Arabica meaning the other 40% is Robusta. Arabica consist of 0.8–1.4% caffeine and Robusta consist of 1.7–4% caffeine. As this brew is one of the world's most widely consumed beverages, Kona is a major cash crop and an important export product, counting for over 50% of some developing nations' foreign exchange earnings.
History of the Coffee Bean
According to recorded history, the plant was discovered in Ethiopia by a goatherd named Kaldi. During review the plant was found to come from mountainous regions of Yemen. Then by 1500, it was exported to the rest of the world through the port of Mocha in Yemen. The cultivation happened near Chikmagalur, India in the 1600’s. The act of cultivation in Europe and outside of east Africa/Arabia was 1616.
Beginning cultivation of Java in 1699 and cultivation in Caribbean Cuba, Hispaniola including Haiti and the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Puerto Rico accrued 1715 to 1730. Cultivation started in South America 1730 and in Dutch East Indies 1720. The plants were introduced in the Americas around 1723. The original roasted seeds were purchase on the retail market in Pittsburgh by 1865.
South America Coffee Bean Production
The bean belt represents the 20 largest producers (2011). South America is now responsible for about 45% of the world's total exports with most of this grown in Brazil.
Why are Coffee Beans Imported to America
The United States imports more than any other nation. The per capita consumption in the United States reviewed 2011 was 4.24 kg (9 lbs), and the value of imports exceeded $8 billion. As of 2015, Americans purchased approximately 400 million cups per day, making the United States the leading consumer in the world. Coffee plants grow within a defined area between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, termed the bean belt or coffee belt.
Basic Coffee Bean Plant Etymology
The Oxford English Dictionary suggests that the European languages generally appear to have gotten the name from Turkish kahveh, about 1600, perhaps through Italian caffè. Arab qahwah, in Turkish pronounced kahveh, the name of the infusion or beverage; said by Arab lexicographers to have originally meant "wine" or some type of wine, and to be a derivative of a verb-root qahiya "to have no appetite." Another common theory is that the name derives from Kaffa Province, Ethiopia, where the species may have originated.
The tree averages from 5–10 m (16–33 ft) in height. As the tree gets older, it branches less and less and bears more leaves and seeds. Plants are grown in rows several feet apart. Some farmers plant fruit trees around them while Islanders plant on the sides of hills, because Kona coffee beans need specific conditions to flourish. Ideally, Arabica coffees are grown at temperatures between 15 and 24 °C (59 and 75 °F) and Robusta at 24–30 °C (75–86 °F) and receive between 15 and 30 cm (5.9 and 11.8 in) of rainfall per year. Heavy rain is needed in the beginning of the season when developing and later less in the season as they ripen.
Processing of Kona Coffee Beans
When the fruit is ripe, it is almost always handpicked, using either "selective picking", where only the ripe fruit is gathered, or "strip-picking", where all of the fruit is removed from a limb all at once. This selective picking gives the growers reason to give their hand picking a certain specification called "operation red cherry" (ORC).
Two methods are primarily used to process berries. The first, "wet" or "washed" process has historically usually been carried out in Central America and areas of Africa. The flesh of the cherries is separated from the seeds and then the seeds are fermented – soaked in water for about two days. This softens the mucilage which is a sticky pulp residue that is still attached to the seeds. Then this mucilage is washed off with water.
The "dry processing" method, cheaper and simpler, was historically used for lower-quality seeds in Brazil and much of Africa, but now brings a premium when done well. Twigs and other foreign objects are separated from the berries and the fruit is then spread out in the sun on concrete, bricks or raise beds for 2–3 weeks, turned regularly for even drying.
The Green Coffee Bean
The term "green coffee bean" refers to unroasted mature or immature Kona beans. These have been processed by wet or dry methods for removing the outer pulp and mucilage and have an intact wax layer on the outer surface. When immature, they are green. When ready to hand pick, they have a reddish color and typically weigh 300 to 330 mg per dried bean. Nonvolatile and volatile compounds in green coffee, such as caffeine, deter many insects and animals from eating them. Further, both nonvolatile and volatile compounds contribute to the flavor of the bean when it is roasted. Nonvolatile nitrogenous compounds (including alkaloids, trigonelline, proteins, and free amino acids) and carbohydrates are of major importance in producing the full aroma of roasting and for its biological action. Since the mid 2000s, green seed extract has been sold as a nutritional supplement and has been clinically studied for its chlorogenic acid content and for its lipolytic and weight-loss properties.